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Толстая, Татьяна Львовна (1864–1950)


Портрет работы И.Е. Репина

(по-англ. Tolstaya, Tatyana Lvovna; в замужестве Сухотина-Толстая), русская мемуаристка, художница, общественная деятельница; старшая дочь Л.Н. Толстого. С 1925 за границей. Участвовала в работе благотворительного Толстовского фонда (организован в 1939).
Начала вести дневники в возрасте 14 лет и продолжала их в течение почти 40 лет. Лев Николаевич поощрял детей к ведению дневников и в ранние годы иногда читал записи Татьяны Львовны. Поэтому особенный интерес в её мемуарах представляют рассказы об отце, его образе жизни, повседневном быте.
В 1899 вышла замуж за Михаила Сергеевича Сухотина. Как и ее сестры Мария и Александра, была последовательницей учения Толстого, вегетарианкой. С 1917 по 1923 являлась хранителем музея-усадьбы Ясная Поляна. С 1925 жила за границей. Участвовала в работе благотворительного Толстовского фонда, который был организован в 1939. Из Парижа переехала в Италию, где провела остаток своей жизни.
Дочь Т.Л. Толстой — Татьяна Михайловна Сухотина-Альбертини («Татьяна Татьянна», как называл ее дедушка; 6 ноября 1905 — 12 августа 1996) написала несколько книг воспоминаний: «Моя мать», «Моя бабушка», «Толстой и детство».

Использованные источники

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на тексты Д. Андреева

Лев Толстой – отец Андрея Болконского, хотя, конечно, и не в том смысле, в котором он был отцом Сергея Львовича или Татьяны Львовны (2: 395).

Внешние

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по Т.Л. Толстой

Мемуарная проза:

Друзья и гости Ясной Поляны // Вестник Европы, 1904.

Семейная трагедия Льва Толстого // Вечерняя Москва, 1928.

Воспоминания. — М.: Художественная литература, 1976.

Дневник. — М., 1979.

О ней:

Биография Т.Л. Сухотиной-Толстой на сайте Спутникового канала единой образовательной информационной среды.



Main page: Andreev encyclopædia


Tolstaya, Tatyana Lvovna (1864–1950)


Portrait by I.E.Repin

(in Russian Толстая, Татьяна Львовна; in marriage Sukhotina-Tolstaya; also spelt as Sukhotin-Tolstoy, Tatiana; known in her family as Tanya; October 4, 1864 – September 21, 1950), the oldest daughter of the Russian writer Leo Tolstoy.
Tatyana grew up close to both her mother and father. She early demonstrated a love of painting, and in 1881 she entered the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture , where her teachers were Vasily Perov , Illarion Pryanishnikov , and Leonid Pasternak ; she also studied with Nikolai Ge . Devoted to her father and his ideals, she had rejected a number of suitors, but in 1897 she fell seriously in love with Mikhail Sergeevich Sukhotin, who was in his fifties and married, with six children.
Quoting: Tanya carried on a kind of platonic romance with him, met himsecretly, suffered from the falseness of the situation but could not bring herself to break it off. “I am ashamed when I think of Sukhotin's wife and children,” she wrote, “although he assured me that I am depriving them of nothing and although I know his wife stopped loving him long ago.” And also, “Papa is the great rival of all lovers and none has been able to vanquish him yet. But this love of mine is competing more strongly than any other has done so far” [BU].
Sukhotin's wife died later that year, and on October 9, Tanya announced her desire to marry Sukhotin to her father, who responded with a fiercely uncompromising rejection (“But why a pure girl should want to get mixed up in such a business is beyond me”). Tanya gave in for the time being, but finally insisted, and on November 14, 1899 the couple were married, with Tolstoy sobbing as he led his daughter to the church. They lived on Sukhotin's estate, Kochety (“The Roosters,” in Tula guberniya , about 30 km (19 mi) east of Oryol), and on November 19, 1905 she gave birth to her only child, a daughter also called Tatyana (Tanya).
From 1914 to 1921 she lived in Yasnaya Polyana, where from 1917 to 1923 she was guardian of the museum; from 1923 to 1925 she was director of the Tolstoy Museum in Moscow. In 1925, together with her daughter, she emigrated to Paris, where she was hostess to Bunin, Chaliapin, Stravinsky, Alexandre Benois , and other members of the Russian exile community. From Paris she moved to Italy, where she spent her final years.
In her diary (December 13, 1932) she wrote: “I have lived an incredibly and undeservedly happy and interesting life. And successful.” Her diary (maintained from October 1878 until 1932) was published in English [BU] and French (tranlation André Maurois, 1953), but in Russian (aside from excerpts in Novy Mir in 1973) not until [BU].

A bibliography on T.L. Tolstaya

The Tolstoy Home: Diaries of Tatiana Sukhotin-Tolstoy / Tr. Alec Brown. – London: Harvill Press; New York: Columbia University Press, 1951.

Troyat, Henri. Tolstoy. – New York: Doubleday, 1967. – P. 551.



Веб-страница создана М.Н. Белгородским 27 февраля 2011 г.
и последний раз обновлена 27 мая 2012 г.
This web-page was created by M.N. Belgorodskiy on February 27, 2011
and last updated on May 27, 2012.







































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