Андреевская энциклопедия

Свердло́в,
Яков Михайлович (1885–1919)

.
По-англ. Sverdlov, Yakov Mikhaylovich

– российский политический и государственный деятель, революционер, большевик. Член ЦК РСДРП(б), РКП(б). Как председатель ВЦИК (формальный глава РСФСР в ноябре 1917 – марте 1919 гг.), был одним из организаторов разгона Учредительного собрания, расказачивания. Многие современные историки признают установленным фактом санкционирование расстрела Николая II большевистским руководством в лице Ленина и Свердлова (с этим мнением согласны не все современные историки – специалисты по данной теме), при этом вопрос о наличии санкций Москвы на убийство родных Николая II остается в современной историографии спорным: некоторые историки признают наличие санкций центральной власти также и на их расстрел, некоторые не признают. {Бол }

Текст статьи

.

.

.
Галерея
Использованные источники
Ссылки на тексты Д. Андреева
Локальные ссылки
Внешние ссылки
Библиография

Собрания сочинений

Другие издания произведений

Сетевые ресурсы

О нем
Цитаты
Литературное приложение


1904.

.

на тексты Д. Андреева

Оказавшие сопротивлен<ие> в мятеж 57 г : Симеон Горд<ый>, И<ван> III, Миних, Суворов, Столыпин, Свердлов, Куйбышев, Калинин (ЧДА: 15-2).

Локальные

.

Внешние

Категория: Яков Михайлович Свердлов
__

по Я.М. Свердлову

Собрания сочинений:

.

Другие издания произведений:

.

Сетевые ресурсы:

.

О нем:

.

.

.


Российская метакультура Партийные и государственные деятели при Ленине





Andreev encyclopædia

Sverdlov,
Yakov Mikhaylovich(1885–1919)

.
In Russian Свердлов, Яков Михайлович.

was Soviet Communist Party leader and government official, chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee.

Text of the article

.

.

.
Gallery
Used sources
Links to D. Andreev’s texts
Local links
External links
A bibliography

Collected works

Other editions of works

Internet resources

About him
Quotings
Literary supplement

His organizational skills and mastery of personnel made him a key figure in the Bolshevik Party in 1917-18. The son of a Jewish engraver, Sverdlov became involved in politics while a teenager and joined the Russian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party in 1902. When that party split in 1903, he joined the Bolshevik faction and remained thereafter a faithful adherent of the policies of Vladimir Lenin. Sverdlov became a party organizer and agitator, working primarily in the Urals, where he headed the Bolshevik underground. He was arrested a number of times and consequently served prison terms and periods of internal exile. While in exile he was co-opted in 1912 into the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party. After the Russian monarchy was overthrown in early 1917, Sverdlov returned to Petrograd (St. Petersburg) from internal exile. He was soon reelected to the party’s Central Committee and was appointed to head the party Secretariat. The remarkable talents he displayed in the latter post made him in effect the party’s chief organizer and its director of personnel. Sverdlov figured importantly in the planning and execution of the Revolution of October 1917, which brought the Bolsheviks to power. Sverdlov was subsequently elected chairman of the Central Executive Committee (CEC) of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, thereby becoming titular head of the Bolshevik state (Nov. 8, 1917). He used his power to bring the CEC and other organs of the new Soviet government firmly under Bolshevik Party control. Like Lenin, Sverdlov believed in a highly centralized party hierarchy, and he worked to place all decision-making power in the party’s Central Committee. His working relations with Lenin were extremely close, with the two men dominating decision making in the Central Committee by late 1918. It was Sverdlov who in July 1918 authorized the Urals Soviet to execute the Romanov imperial family in Yekaterinburg that month. (see also Index: Romanov dynasty) Sverdlov died of an infectious illness in 1919 and was buried on Moscow’s Red Square. In 1924 the city of Yekaterinburg in the Urals, where he had performed much of his early party work, was renamed Sverdlovsk in his honour. (The city reverted to its original name in 1991.) Sverdlov’s untimely death created a void in the Communist Party’s organizational machinery that was never satisfactorily filled; Joseph Stalin took over the party’s Secretariat in 1922.

.

to D. Andreev’s texts

quoting .

Local

.

External


on Ya.M. Sverdlov

Collected works:

.

Other editions of works (all in Russian):

.

Internet resources:

.

About him:

.

.

.


Russian metaculture Party and state figures of Lenin rule

Веб-страница создана М.Н. Белгородским 30 ноября 2014 г.
и последний раз обновлена 30 ноября 2014 г.
This web-page was created by M.N. Belgorodsky on November 30, 2014
and last updated on November 30, 2014.